Vitamin C: How to get the most out of your supplement?

Aug 23, 2021

Introduction
 

The emergence of COVID-19 pandemic has raised public awareness on the importance of boosting the body’s immune system. One of the ways is by taking vitamin C supplementation daily. According to Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey, vitamin C is one of the most commonly consumed supplements1 in Malaysia.

The question is, how to get the most out of your vitamin C supplement, without bringing harm to our body?

Most vitamin C supplements in the market offers a convenient once-a-day dosage of 1000mg, which is much higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysia (RNI) of 70mg per day2. Supplements are not only catered for daily body maintenance; they are also formulated to provide additional health benefits to general consumers. For instance, to enhance health3 and to reduce the duration of common cold and cold incidence, we need to take high strength dose of 1000mg vitamin C4,5.

1000mg vitamin C is useful to cater for the reduced absorption rate in the body. Meaning, out of the 50% of vitamin C or 500mg that is absorbed in the body, only 200mg will stay in the blood stream6, and all the remaining will be excreted out in the form of urine. Hence, when taking vitamin C supplement, it is advised to be accompanied with adequate water intake to ease its excretion.

What are Bioflavonoids?
 

Bioflavonoids are substances that are typically found in certain plants, primarily in citrus fruits. For example, the white layer found under the skin of an orange contains bioflavonoids. Bioflavonoids have been known to be the best partner for vitamin C as these natural compounds would be able to improve the absorption rate of vitamin C by 35%9. Together with vitamin C, bioflavonoids could help to boost the immune system. Besides that, bioflavonoids are potent antioxidants that could neutralize free radicals.

Rest assured that the consumption of 1000mg vitamin C daily is safe and not toxic, if we follow the product label instruction. The accepted tolerable upper intake level (TUL) is 2000mg2 a day, which is set based on osmotic diarrhea and gastrointestinal disturbances7. In fact, the maximum level of vitamin C allowed by Malaysia National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Agency (NPRA) in adult health supplement is 1000mg8.

In conclusion, taking 1000mg of vitamin C supplement in a day is unlikely to cause any harm. If you struggle to get enough vitamin C from your diet, vitamin C supplement is a convenient way to fill the nutrition gap. Remember, do not take it above TUL, without prescription.


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References
  1. Mohd Zaki, N. A., Rasidi, M. N., Awaluddin, S. M., Hiong, T. G., Ismail, H., & Mohamad Nor, N. S. (2018). Prevalence and Characteristic of Dietary Supplement Users in Malaysia: Data From the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2014. Global Journal of Health Science, 10(12), 127. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v10n12p127
  2. National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition. RNI Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysia. A Report of the Technical Working Group on Nutritional Guidelines.Ministry of Health Malaysia; Putrajaya, Malaysia: 2017
  3. Ordman, A. R. (2010). Vitamin C twice a day enhances health. Health, 02(08), 819–823. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2010.28123
  4. Van Straten, M., & Josling, P. (2002). Preventing the common cold with a vitamin C supplement: A double-blind, placebo-controlled survey. Advances in Therapy, 19(3), 151–159. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02850271
  5. Maggini, S., Beveridge, S., & Suter, M. (2012). A Combination of High-Dose Vitamin C plus Zinc for the Common Cold. Journal of International Medical Research, 40(1), 28–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/147323001204000104
  6. MOH Malaysia. Vitamin C: Apa yang perlu anda tahu? Retrieved 2021, July 7 from https://siraplimau.com/sayur-buah-tinggi-vitamin-c-suplemen/
  7. Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000. 5, Vitamin C. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK225480/
  8. National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Division. Drug Registration Guidance Document (DRGD).Ministry of Health Malaysia; Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: 2019
  9. Vinson, J. A., & Bose, P. (1988). Comparative bioavailability to humans of ascorbic acid alone or in a citrus extract. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 48(3), 601-604

维生素 C:如何充分地应用营养辅助品呢?

Aug 23, 2021

简介

COVID-19 大流行的出现提高了公众对增强人体免疫系统重要性的认识。 其中一种方法就是每天补充维生素 C。 根据马来西亚成人营养调查(MANS),维生素 C 是马来西亚最常被服用的营养辅助品之一1

但问题是,要如何才能充分地应用您的维生素 C 营养辅助品,而不会对我们的身体造成伤害呢?

市场上的大多数维生素 C 营养辅助品都提供方便的一天一次 1000 毫克的剂量,远高于马来西亚每天 70 毫克的推荐营养摄入量 (RNI) 2。 营养辅助品不仅适用于日常身体保健; 它们也被配制来为一般的消费者提供额外的健康益处。

例如,为了要促进身体健康3,以及想要减少普通感冒的持续时间和发病率,我们需要服用高强度1000毫克的维生素C 4,5

1000毫克的维生素 C 有助于解决体内吸收率降低的问题。 也就是说,50% 或 500毫克被身体吸收的的维生素 C当中,只有 200毫克会留在血液中6,其余的都以尿液的形式排出体外。 因此,在服用维生素C营养辅助品时,建议同时补充足够的水分,以协助它排出体外。

什么是生物类黄酮?
 

生物类黄酮是通常存在于某些植物中的物质,主要存在于柑橘类水果中。例如,橘子皮下的白色层含有生物类黄酮。众所周知,生物类黄酮是维生素 C 的最佳搭档,因为这些天然化合物能够将维生素 C 的吸收率提高 35%9。与维生素 C 一起,生物类黄酮可以帮助增强免疫系统。除此之外,生物类黄酮是强效的抗氧化剂,可以中和自由基。

请放心,如果我们遵循产品标签的指示,每天摄入 1000 毫克的维生素 C 是安全且无毒的。可耐受最高摄入量(TUL)为每天2000 毫克2,这是依据渗透性腹泻和胃肠功能紊乱而设定的7。事实上,马来西亚国家药品监管局(NPRA)允许的成人辅助品中维生素C的最高含量为1000毫克8

总结来说,一天服用 1000 毫克维生素 C 辅助品不太可能造成任何伤害。如果您难以从饮食中获取足够的维生素 C,维生素 C辅助品 是一种填补营养缺口的便捷方法。请记住,不要在没有处方的情况下服用超过 TUL。


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参考文献
 
  1. Mohd Zaki, N. A., Rasidi, M. N., Awaluddin, S. M., Hiong, T. G., Ismail, H., & Mohamad Nor, N. S. (2018). Prevalence and Characteristic of Dietary Supplement Users in Malaysia: Data From the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2014. Global Journal of Health Science, 10(12), 127. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v10n12p127
  2. National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition. RNI Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysia. A Report of the Technical Working Group on Nutritional Guidelines.Ministry of Health Malaysia; Putrajaya, Malaysia: 2017
  3. Ordman, A. R. (2010). Vitamin C twice a day enhances health. Health, 02(08), 819–823. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2010.28123
  4. Van Straten, M., & Josling, P. (2002). Preventing the common cold with a vitamin C supplement: A double-blind, placebo-controlled survey. Advances in Therapy, 19(3), 151–159. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02850271
  5. Maggini, S., Beveridge, S., & Suter, M. (2012). A Combination of High-Dose Vitamin C plus Zinc for the Common Cold. Journal of International Medical Research, 40(1), 28–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/147323001204000104
  6. MOH Malaysia. Vitamin C: Apa yang perlu anda tahu? Retrieved 2021, July 7 from https://siraplimau.com/sayur-buah-tinggi-vitamin-c-suplemen/
  7. Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000. 5, Vitamin C. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK225480/
  8. National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Division. Drug Registration Guidance Document (DRGD).Ministry of Health Malaysia; Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: 2019
  9. Vinson, J. A., & Bose, P. (1988). Comparative bioavailability to humans of ascorbic acid alone or in a citrus extract. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 48(3), 601-604

Vitamin C: Bagaimanakah untuk Mendapatkan Manfaat Penuh daripada Suplemen Anda?

Aug 23, 2021

Pengenalan
 

Kemunculan pandemik COVID-19 telah meningkatkan kesedaran awam mengenai kepentingan untuk menguatkan sistem imun badan. Salah satu cara adalah dengan pengambilan harian suplemen vitamin C. Berdasarkan Tinjauan Pemakanan Dewasa Malaysia (MANS), vitamin C merupakan suplemen yang paling kerap diambil1 di Malaysia.

Persoalannya, bagaimanakah cara untuk mendapatkan manfaat penuh daripada suplemen vitamin C tanpa mendatangkan kemudaratan kepada badan?

Kebanyakan suplemen vitamin C dalam pasaran menawarkan dos sekali sehari yang mudah untuk pengambilan harian iaitu 1000mg, yang jauh lebih tinggi daripada Saranan Pengambilan Nutrien (RNI) Malaysia iaitu 70mg dalam sehari2. Suplemen bukan sahaja diperlukan untuk kegunaan harian badan; malahan dihasilkan untuk memberi manfaat kesihatan tambahan kepada pengguna. Sebagai contoh, untuk meningkatkan kesihatan3 dan mengurangkan tempoh selsema dan kekerapannya, kita perlu mengambil dos yang tinggi iaitu sebanyak 1000mg vitamin C4,5.

1000mg vitamin C amat berguna untuk memenuhi tahap penyerapan yang rendah dalam badan. Hal ini bermaksud, dalam 50% vitamin C atau 500mg vitamin C yang diserap dalam tubuh, hanya 200mg yang akan kekal dalam aliran darah, dan selebihnya akan dikeluarkan melalui air kencing. Oleh itu, apabila mengambil vitamin C, anda dinasihatkan untuk mengambilnya bersama air yang secukupnya untuk memudahkan pengeluarannya.

Apa itu Bioflavonoid?
 

Bioflavanoid adalah sejenis bahan yang kebiasaannya dijumpai di dalam tumbuhan tertentu, terutamanya buah citrus. Contohnya, lapisan putih yang dijumpai di bawah kulit oren mengandungi bioflavonoid. Bioflavanoid telah dikenali untuk menjadi pasangan terbaik kepada vitamin C disebabkan keupayaan bahan semula jadi ini dalam meningkatkan tahap penyerapan vitamin C sebanyak 35%9. Bersama dengan vitamin C, bioflavonoid ialah antioxidan kuat yang berupaya untuk meneutralkan radikal bebas.

Yakinlah bahawa pengambilan 1000mg vitamin C adalah selamat dan tidak toksik sekiranya kita mengikut arahan pada label produk. Dos maksimum vitamin C yang dinyatakan selamat (TUL) ialah 2000mg2 dalam sehari, yang ditentukan berdasarkan tahap cirit-birit osmotik dan gangguan pada gastrousus7. Sebenarnya, dos maksimun vitamin C yang dibenarkan oleh Bahagian Regulatori Farmasi Negara (NPRA) dalam suplemen kesihatan dewasa ialah 1000mg8.

Kesimpulannya, mengambil 1000mg suplemen vitamin C dalam sehari tidak mungkin akan mendatangkan kemudaratan. Sekiranya anda mengalami kesukaran untuk mengambil vitamin C yang mencukupi melalui diet, suplemen vitamin C merupakan cara yang mudah untuk memenuhi jurang nutrisi ini. Anda perlu ingat untuk tidak mengambilnya melebihi TUL dan tanpa preskripsi.


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Rujukan
  1. Mohd Zaki, N. A., Rasidi, M. N., Awaluddin, S. M., Hiong, T. G., Ismail, H., & Mohamad Nor, N. S. (2018). Prevalence and Characteristic of Dietary Supplement Users in Malaysia: Data From the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2014. Global Journal of Health Science, 10(12), 127. https://doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v10n12p127
  2. National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition. RNI Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysia. A Report of the Technical Working Group on Nutritional Guidelines.Ministry of Health Malaysia; Putrajaya, Malaysia: 2017
  3. Ordman, A. R. (2010). Vitamin C twice a day enhances health. Health, 02(08), 819–823. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2010.28123
  4. Van Straten, M., & Josling, P. (2002). Preventing the common cold with a vitamin C supplement: A double-blind, placebo-controlled survey. Advances in Therapy, 19(3), 151–159. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02850271
  5. Maggini, S., Beveridge, S., & Suter, M. (2012). A Combination of High-Dose Vitamin C plus Zinc for the Common Cold. Journal of International Medical Research, 40(1), 28–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/147323001204000104
  6. MOH Malaysia. Vitamin C: Apa yang perlu anda tahu? Retrieved 2021, July 7 from https://siraplimau.com/sayur-buah-tinggi-vitamin-c-suplemen/
  7. Institute of Medicine (US) Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2000. 5, Vitamin C. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK225480/
  8. National Pharmaceutical Regulatory Division. Drug Registration Guidance Document (DRGD).Ministry of Health Malaysia; Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: 2019
  9. Vinson, J. A., & Bose, P. (1988). Comparative bioavailability to humans of ascorbic acid alone or in a citrus extract. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 48(3), 601-604