Vitamin C plays a big role in supporting healthy immune function. It is necessary for bone structure, skin integrity, and iron absorption, according to a study published by the Harvard Medical School.
If you are wondering how much vitamin C you should actually get, registered dietitian Summer Yule, MS, RDN, suggested that the recommended daily amount for adults is 90 milligrams for men and 75 milligrams for women. Although the vitamin is available through supplementation, Yule told INSIDER that vitamin C is also obtainable through fruits and vegetables, and restricting these items can actually put a person at risk of deficiencies.
Most people get enough vitamin C through a balanced diet. But to make sure you are getting enough vitamin C in your diet, INSIDER spoke to some dietitians and physicians about what the warning signs are if you’re not actually getting enough.
You can experience hair breakage
“Hair breakage can be a sign of vitamin C deficiency,” suggested registered dietitian nutritionist Cassie Berger, MS, RDN.
The vitamin is necessary for collagen production, which provides the structure needed for strong hair, nails, and skin.
Your skin can become dry
“A great way to protect your skin from over-drying during the winter is to get enough vitamin C,” explained Berger. Vitamin C aids in the production of sebum, she told INSIDER, which provides a protective oil layer for our skin.
You can experience rough skin with tiny bumps
“A vitamin C deficiency may cause rough skin with tiny bumps,” suggested registered dietitian nutritionist Rachel Fine, MS, RD, CSSD, CDN. “This is condition is known as keratosis pilaris and is sometimes called chicken skin,” she said.
Your gums can become painful and may bleed
“Vitamin C is necessary for healthy gums,” said registered dietitian Julie Upton, MS, RD. This vitamin is essential for the production of collagen, which is necessary for many organs and tissues, she told INSIDER.
You can bruise more easily
“Vitamin C is involved with collagen production, a component of blood vessels,” said board-certified emergency medicine physician Chirag Shah, MD. In the absence of adequate collagen synthesis due to a vitamin C deficiency, he explained that blood vessel integrity can suffer and sometimes result in increased and easy bruising.
Your wounds won’t heal poorly
“Through its impact is on collagen production, vitamin C deficiencies can also impact wound healing,” explained Shah. Vitamin C is important in enabling the healing process, he suggested, and a low vitamin C level will often show itself quickly through a poorly healing wound.
Vitamin C deficiency can lead to inflammation
“Vitamin C is a potent antioxidant that helps our body deal with inflammation,” said registered dietitian Ashley Weaver, MS, RD, CSSD. Inflammation can cause pain in joints, she suggested.
Vitamin C deficiency can lead to iron deficiency anemia
“Iron deficiency anemia can develop since low vitamin C intake decreases the absorption of non-heme sources of iron (such as from fortified cereals),” Yule said.
You can experience fatigue and irritability
“Lack of vitamin C will give you a case of fatigue and can even cause an irritable mood,” said registered dietitian Jenn Fillenworth, MS, RD. This is one of the earliest signs your vitamin C may be getting low, she suggested.
Scurvy is the most severe form of vitamin C deficiency
“Scurvy is the most severe form of vitamin C deficiency,” Fillenworth told INSIDER. Though it is rare, symptoms of scurvy develop after several months of being vitamin C deficient and include bruising, bleeding gums, fatigue, rash, muscle weakness, and coiled hair, she said.
THURSDAY, Sept. 20, 2018 (HealthDay News)
Different from osteoarthritis, which is the wear-and-tear breakdown of joint cartilage experienced over time, rheumatoid arthritis, or RA, is an autoimmune disease that causes both pain and intense fatigue.
When you're in the throes of a flare, exercise may seem like mission impossible and you might be advised to rest until it passes. But exercise is an essential part of an overall treatment plan to ease RA symptoms and improve mobility. Aim for a weekly routine that includes stretching, cardio and strength training.
Stretching boosts flexibility and range of motion. First, warm muscles with 5 minutes of light movement, then do a series of stretches to target all muscle groups. Always hold each stretch for 20 seconds. Yoga and tai chi are specific activities that increase flexibility and may even help ease the emotional stress of RA. To learn the basics, take a class or work one-on-one with an instructor, at least at first.
You can get the benefits of cardio with low-impact exercises, which are easier on your joints than a pounding activity like running. Walking is great, but swimming and water workouts put even less stress on joints because of the buoyancy of the water.
Support your joints by strengthening the muscles around them with resistance exercises. You can use stretchy resistance bands if weights are too hard to manage. Pay special attention to the muscles surrounding the joints most affected by rheumatoid arthritis, but don't neglect other muscle groups.
Work with your rheumatologist or a physical therapist familiar with RA to develop an individualized plan and ask how you should tailor your activities when a flare strikes.
Source From: https://consumer.healthday.com/bone-and-joint-information-4/rheumatoid-arthritis-news-43/exercising-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-736344.html
Healthy people with a low risk of cardiovascular disease may still need to keep a close eye on their cholesterol, according to new research.
A study(link opens in new window), published recently in the journal Circulation, found that otherwise healthy people with high LDL cholesterol levels are at higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease than those with lower LDL.
Often called “bad cholesterol,” LDL contributes to fatty buildups in arteries, which increases the risk for heart attacks, strokes and peripheral artery disease.
“Even if you have a low 10-year risk, that doesn’t eliminate the long-term risks of having high cholesterol levels and significantly poorer cardiovascular health,” said Dr. Shuaib Abdullah, the study’s lead author.
Researchers looked at data from 36,375 patients in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. Participants had no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes and were deemed to have a low 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
After following participants for about 27 years starting in their 30s or 40s, researchers found that people with LDL levels of 160 or higher had a 70 percent to 90 percent higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease compared to people with LDL below 100.
“There’s controversy within the medical community about what the LDL cutoff level should be, when patients should be treated, and if they should be treated at all,” said Abdullah, an assistant professor of internal medicine at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. “But this study shows a marked increase in death from cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease at the 160 level.”
An estimated 28.5 million Americans have total cholesterol levels of 240 or higher, which roughly corresponds to an LDL level of 160 or higher, according to the study.
Abdullah said the study serves as a reminder that all adults should get regular cholesterols tests no matter how old they are. “A lot of patients with high cholesterol don’t know it until they have a heart attack,” he said.
Guidelines recommend people have their cholesterol checked every four to six years starting at age 20.
The study also showed an increased risk for people with non-HDL cholesterol readings above 160. Non-HDL levels are a person’s total cholesterol minus their HDL, the “good” type of cholesterol that helps the body get rid of some of the harmful LDL. Abdullah said past studies have shown non-HDL levels might be a better marker for cardiovascular risk than LDL in patients with additional risk factors.
Dr. Christie Ballantyne, who was not involved in the new research but coauthored an accompanying editorial(link opens in new window), said the study provides “more important information for the patient-doctor decision-making process.”
“A study like this helps doctors say, ‘Your risk has increased and there are things we can do to treat that risk, whether it’s lifestyle modifications or using medications like statins,’” said Ballantyne, chief of cardiology and cardiovascular research at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston.
Ballantyne said the new research shows that even healthy people should be following recommendations for ideal cardiovascular health, such as not smoking, managing blood pressure and staying physically active.
“Most cardiovascular disease is preventable, especially if we get patients and health care providers the right information so they can make the best decisions,” he said.
Source from: https://www.heart.org/en/news/2018/08/20/bad-cholesterol-can-be-deadly-in-otherwise-healthy-people
Obesity and OA are two interconnected health care problems affecting a large proportion of the adult population worldwide, however studying causality in this association is difficult due to confounding factors. To test the hypothesis that the association between obesity and OA is causal, investigators used a method know as 'mendelian randomization', which uses genetic variants to investigate whether a biomarker has an effect on the risk of developing disease.
"Obesity in both childhood and adulthood is an important public health issue," said Professor Johannes W. Bijlsma, EULAR President. "These data showing a causal relationship with osteoarthritis should add further impetus to tackle the issue of obesity and reduce related disability."
Results of the study indicated that adult body mass index (BMI) significantly increased the prevalence of self-reported OA, knee OA or hip OA by 2.7%, 1.3%, and 0.4% per unit (1 kg/m2) increase in BMI respectively. Childhood BMI significantly increased the prevalence of self-reported OA, knee OA or hip OA by 1.7%, 0.6%, and 0.6% per BMI unit respectively. No associations were found between either adult or child BMI and hand OA, which contradicts previous cohorts. Investigators suggest that this could be explained by the impact of various confounding factors such as manual work or related socio-economic factors. Finally, no relationship was found with traumatic eye injury which was used in the study as a negative control.1
"Our results suggest the effect of adult BMI seems to be stronger on knees, whilst childhood BMI might impact both knee and hip osteoarthritis risk similarly," said Professor Prieto-Alhambra (senior study author). "Interestingly our findings contradict previous studies that found an association between obesity and hand osteoarthritis."
Investigators used data from two genome wide association studies (GWAS) which identified 15 and 97 specific gene changes, known as SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism), associated with childhood and adulthood BMI respectively. They then used a separate GWAS of 337,000 unrelated individuals in the UK BioBank. Within this data they identified 13/15 childhood obesity SNPs and 68/97 adulthood obesity SNPs and then analysed the association between these SNPs and self-reported osteoarthritis, as well as hospital data for knee, hip and hand osteoarthritis. Associations with negative controls (myopia, left-handedness, and traumatic eye injury) were all inexistent as expected.