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Benefits of Astaxanthin

Introduction

Skin is the largest organ as it is one-sixth of the total body weight. It acts as a chemical and physical barrier to protect the body against harmful external environmental agents [1]. However, if our skin leaves unprotected and exposes to excessive sunlight, it will result in sunburn and can also lead to photo-induced oxidation, inflammation, immunosuppression, aging and even carcinogenesis of skin cells [2]. Astaxanthin can revitalize these photoaging damages in quenching those oxidative stress and inflammation in all skin layers [3,4].

Astaxanthin – Protects Against Aging in All Skin Layers

1. Surface: Astaxanthin serves as skin protective barrier against free radical damage [5]

2. Stratum Corneum: Astaxanthin fights skin dryness and skin roughness [6]

3. Epidermis: Astaxanthin quenches over-production of melanin [6]

4. Dermis: Astaxanthin fight lines and wrinkles and boosts fibroblast and collagen integrity [6,7]

5. Hypodermis: Astaxanthin improves nutrient supplies to the skin tissue [8,9]

Multifunctional Health Benefits of Astaxanthin

Besides skin health, Astaxanthin also exhibits health benefits on different part of our body.

1. Vision & Eye Health: Astaxanthin can improve capillary blood flow which relieves Computer Vision Syndrome such as eye fatigue, eye irritation and blurred vision [10,11]

2. Muscle Endurance: Astaxanthin can boost muscle endurance and recovery, lower lactic acid and muscle fatigue, reduce muscle damage and inflammation [12,13]

3. Cardiovascular Health: Astaxanthin can improve blood lipid profile, reduce oxidative stress and enhance capillary circulation [14,15]

4. Immune Health: Astaxanthin can enhance immune response, strengthen and balance the immunity [16]

5. Digestive Health: Astaxanthin can lower gastric inflammation and decrease H. pylori infection [17,18]

6. Brain Health: Astaxanthin can improve age-related forgetfulness and alertness [19]

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Reference
  1. Pérez-Sánchez A, et al. Nutrients 2018; 10(4): 403.
  2. Guerin M, et al. TRENDS in Biotechnology 2003;21(5): 210-6.
  3. Kim JH, et al. Journal of Medicinal Food 2011; 14(11):1469-75.
  4. Uchiyama A, J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2008; 43(1): 38-43.
  5. Ambati R, et al. Marine drugs 2014; 12(1): 128-152.
  6. Tominaga K, et al. Acta Biochimica Polonica 2012; 59(1): 43-47.
  7. Tominaga K, et al. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition 2017; 61(1): 17-35.
  8. Saito M, et al. Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology 2012; 250(2): 239-245.
  9. Miyawaki H, et al. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition 2008; 43(2): 69-74.
  10. Nagaki Y, et al. J Trad Med 2002; 19: 170-173.
  11. Shiratori K, et al. Journal of Clinical Therapeutics and Medicines 2005; 21(6): 637-650.
  12. Malmsten C, et al. Carotenoid Science 2008; 13: 20-22.
  13. Sawaki K, et al. Journal of Clinical Therapeutics & Medicines 2002; 18(9): 1085-1100.
  14. Satoh A, et al. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition 2009; 44(3): 280-284.
  15. Yoshida H, et al. Atherosclerosis 2010; 209(2): 520-523.
  16. Lin KH, et al. International journal of molecular sciences 2016; 17(1): 44.
  17. Bennedsen M, et al. Immunology Letters 2000; 70(3): 185-189.
  18. Kupcinskas L, et al. Phytomedicine 2008; 15(6-7): 391-399.
  19. Grimmig B, et al. Geroscience 2017; 39(1): 19-32.

虾青素的益处

简介

肌肤是人体最大的器官,因为它占了总体重的六分之一。 它可作为化学和物理屏障,保护身体免受有害外界环境因素的影响[1]。然而,如果我们的肌肤没有受到保护并且长期暴露在阳光下,它将导致晒伤,还可能导致光诱导的氧化、炎症、免疫抑制、老化甚至皮肤细胞的癌变[2]。 虾青素可以恢复这些光老化损伤,抑制所有肌肤层中的氧化应激和炎症 [3,4]

虾青素-保护所有肌肤层免于老化

1. 表面:虾青素作为肌肤保护层,避免自由基的伤害 [5]

2. 角质层:自由基抵抗肌肤干燥和粗糙 [6]

3. 表皮:虾青素防止过量的黑色素生成 [6]

4. 真皮:虾青素对抗细纹和皱纹,促进纤维细胞和胶原蛋白的完整性 [6,7]

5. 皮下组织:虾青素改善皮肤组织的营养供给 [8,9]

虾青素的多功能保健功效

除了肌肤健康,虾青素还对我们身体不同部位有健康益处。

1. 视力和眼睛健康:虾青素可改善毛细血管循环,减轻电脑视觉综合征,如眼睛疲劳,眼睛敏感和视力模糊 [10,11]

2. 肌肉耐力:虾青素可提高肌肉耐力和恢复能力,降低乳酸和肌肉疲劳,减少肌肉损伤和炎症 [12,13]

3. 心血管健康:虾青素可改善血脂,减少氧化应激,增加毛细血管循环 [14,15]

4. 免疫健康:虾青素可增强免疫反应,强化和平衡免疫力 [16]

5. 消化系统健康:虾青素可降低胃部炎症,减少幽门螺杆菌感染 [17,18]

6. 脑部健康:虾青素可改善与年龄有关的健忘和警觉性 [19]

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参考文献
  1. Pérez-Sánchez A, et al. Nutrients 2018; 10(4): 403.
  2. Guerin M, et al. TRENDS in Biotechnology 2003;21(5): 210-6.
  3. Kim JH, et al. Journal of Medicinal Food 2011; 14(11):1469-75.
  4. Uchiyama A, J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2008; 43(1): 38-43.
  5. Ambati R, et al. Marine drugs 2014; 12(1): 128-152.
  6. Tominaga K, et al. Acta Biochimica Polonica 2012; 59(1): 43-47.
  7. Tominaga K, et al. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition 2017; 61(1): 17-35.
  8. Saito M, et al. Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology 2012; 250(2): 239-245.
  9. Miyawaki H, et al. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition 2008; 43(2): 69-74.
  10. Nagaki Y, et al. J Trad Med 2002; 19: 170-173.
  11. Shiratori K, et al. Journal of Clinical Therapeutics and Medicines 2005; 21(6): 637-650.
  12. Malmsten C, et al. Carotenoid Science 2008; 13: 20-22.
  13. Sawaki K, et al. Journal of Clinical Therapeutics & Medicines 2002; 18(9): 1085-1100.
  14. Satoh A, et al. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition 2009; 44(3): 280-284.
  15. Yoshida H, et al. Atherosclerosis 2010; 209(2): 520-523.
  16. Lin KH, et al. International journal of molecular sciences 2016; 17(1): 44.
  17. Bennedsen M, et al. Immunology Letters 2000; 70(3): 185-189.
  18. Kupcinskas L, et al. Phytomedicine 2008; 15(6-7): 391-399.
  19. Grimmig B, et al. Geroscience 2017; 39(1): 19-32.

Manfaat Astaxanthin

Pengenalan

Kulit merupakan organ terbesar kerana ia adalah satu-per-enam daripada jumlah berat badan. Kulit berfungsi sebagai penghalang kimia serta fizikal untuk melindungi badan daripada agen-agen berbahaya dari persekitaran [1]. Namun, jika kulit kita dibiarkan terdedah kepada cahaya matahari yang terlalu banyak, akan mengakibatkan selaran matahari dan juga pengoksidaan disebabkan cahaya, keradangan, imunosupresi, penuaan dan juga karsinogenesis pada sel-sel kulit [2]. Astaxanthin mampu memulihkan kerosakan penuaan akibat cahaya dengan mengurangkan tekanan oksidatif dan keradangan pada semua lapisan kulit [3,4].

Pengenalan

 

1. Permukaan: Astaxanthin sebagai lapisan pelindungan kulit daripada kerosakan radikal bebas [5]

2. Stratum Corneum: Astaxanthin melawan kekeringan dan kekasaran kulit [6]

3. Epidermis: Astaxanthin menghalangkan penghasilan melanin yang berlebihan [6]

4. Dermis: Astaxanthin melawan garisan dan kedutan pada kulit serta meningkatkan integriti fibroblast dan kolagen [6,7]

5. Hipodermis: Astaxanthin meningkatkan bekalan nutrien ke tisu kulit [8,9]

Kepelbagaian Fungsi Manfaat Kesihatan Astaxanthin

Selain kesihatan kulit, Astaxanthin juga menunjukkan manfaat kesihatan pada bahagian badan yang berlainan.

1. Penglihatan dan Kesihatan Mata: Astaxanthin dapat meningkatkan pengaliran darah kapilari yang boleh melegakan Sindrom Penglihatan Penggunaan Komputer seperti keletihan mata, kerengsaan mata serta penglihatan kabur [10,11]

2. Ketahanan Otot: Astaxanthin boleh meningkatkan daya tahan dan pemulihan otot, mengurangkan asid laktik, keletihan dan kerosakan pada otot serta keradangan [12,13]

3. Kesihatan Kardiovaskular: Astaxanthin mampu menambahbaikkan profil lipid darah, mengurangkan tekanan oksidatif dan meningkatkan peredaran kapilari [14,15]

4. Kesihatan Imun: Astaxanthin berupaya meningkatkan tindak balas imun, menguatkan dan mengimbangkan imuniti [16]

5. Kesihatan Penghadaman: Astaxanthin dapat mengurangkan keradangan gastrik dan mengurangkan jangkitan H. pylori [17,18]

6. Kesihatan Otak: Astaxanthin boleh meningkatkan daya keingatan dan kewaspadaan yang semakin menurun mengikuti usia [19]

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Rujukan
  1. Pérez-Sánchez A, et al. Nutrients 2018; 10(4): 403.
  2. Guerin M, et al. TRENDS in Biotechnology 2003;21(5): 210-6.
  3. Kim JH, et al. Journal of Medicinal Food 2011; 14(11):1469-75.
  4. Uchiyama A, J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2008; 43(1): 38-43.
  5. Ambati R, et al. Marine drugs 2014; 12(1): 128-152.
  6. Tominaga K, et al. Acta Biochimica Polonica 2012; 59(1): 43-47.
  7. Tominaga K, et al. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition 2017; 61(1): 17-35.
  8. Saito M, et al. Graefe's archive for clinical and experimental ophthalmology 2012; 250(2): 239-245.
  9. Miyawaki H, et al. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition 2008; 43(2): 69-74.
  10. Nagaki Y, et al. J Trad Med 2002; 19: 170-173.
  11. Shiratori K, et al. Journal of Clinical Therapeutics and Medicines 2005; 21(6): 637-650.
  12. Malmsten C, et al. Carotenoid Science 2008; 13: 20-22.
  13. Sawaki K, et al. Journal of Clinical Therapeutics & Medicines 2002; 18(9): 1085-1100.
  14. Satoh A, et al. Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition 2009; 44(3): 280-284.
  15. Yoshida H, et al. Atherosclerosis 2010; 209(2): 520-523.
  16. Lin KH, et al. International journal of molecular sciences 2016; 17(1): 44.
  17. Bennedsen M, et al. Immunology Letters 2000; 70(3): 185-189.
  18. Kupcinskas L, et al. Phytomedicine 2008; 15(6-7): 391-399.
  19. Grimmig B, et al. Geroscience 2017; 39(1): 19-32.
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